Class yii\base\Model

Inheritanceyii\base\Model » yii\base\Component » yii\base\BaseObject
ImplementsArrayAccess, IteratorAggregate, yii\base\Arrayable, yii\base\Configurable, yii\base\StaticInstanceInterface
Uses Traitsyii\base\ArrayableTrait, yii\base\StaticInstanceTrait
Subclassesyii\base\DynamicModel, yii\data\ActiveDataFilter, yii\data\DataFilter, yii\db\ActiveRecord, yii\db\BaseActiveRecord, yii\debug\models\Router, yii\debug\models\UserSwitch, yii\debug\models\search\Base, yii\debug\models\search\Db, yii\debug\models\search\Debug, yii\debug\models\search\Log, yii\debug\models\search\Mail, yii\debug\models\search\Profile, yii\debug\models\search\User, yii\debug\models\timeline\Search, yii\elasticsearch\ActiveRecord, yii\gii\Generator, yii\gii\generators\controller\Generator, yii\gii\generators\crud\Generator, yii\gii\generators\extension\Generator, yii\gii\generators\form\Generator, yii\gii\generators\model\Generator, yii\gii\generators\module\Generator, yii\httpclient\debug\SearchModel, yii\mongodb\ActiveRecord, yii\mongodb\file\ActiveRecord, yii\mongodb\gii\model\Generator, yii\redis\ActiveRecord, yii\sphinx\ActiveRecord, yii\sphinx\gii\model\Generator
Available since version2.0
Source Code https://github.com/yiisoft/yii2/blob/master/framework/base/Model.php

Model is the base class for data models.

Model implements the following commonly used features:

  • attribute declaration: by default, every public class member is considered as a model attribute
  • attribute labels: each attribute may be associated with a label for display purpose
  • massive attribute assignment
  • scenario-based validation

Model also raises the following events when performing data validation:

You may directly use Model to store model data, or extend it with customization.

For more details and usage information on Model, see the guide article on models.

Public Methods

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MethodDescriptionDefined By
__call() Calls the named method which is not a class method. yii\base\BaseObject
__clone() This method is called after the object is created by cloning an existing one. yii\base\Component
__construct() Constructor. yii\base\BaseObject
__get() Returns the value of an object property. yii\base\BaseObject
__isset() Checks if a property is set, i.e. defined and not null. yii\base\BaseObject
__set() Sets value of an object property. yii\base\BaseObject
__unset() Sets an object property to null. yii\base\BaseObject
activeAttributes() Returns the attribute names that are subject to validation in the current scenario. yii\base\Model
addError() Adds a new error to the specified attribute. yii\base\Model
addErrors() Adds a list of errors. yii\base\Model
afterValidate() This method is invoked after validation ends. yii\base\Model
attachBehavior() Attaches a behavior to this component. yii\base\Component
attachBehaviors() Attaches a list of behaviors to the component. yii\base\Component
attributeHints() Returns the attribute hints. yii\base\Model
attributeLabels() Returns the attribute labels. yii\base\Model
attributes() Returns the list of attribute names. yii\base\Model
beforeValidate() This method is invoked before validation starts. yii\base\Model
behaviors() Returns a list of behaviors that this component should behave as. yii\base\Component
canGetProperty() Returns a value indicating whether a property can be read. yii\base\BaseObject
canSetProperty() Returns a value indicating whether a property can be set. yii\base\BaseObject
className() Returns the fully qualified name of this class. yii\base\BaseObject
clearErrors() Removes errors for all attributes or a single attribute. yii\base\Model
createValidators() Creates validator objects based on the validation rules specified in rules(). yii\base\Model
detachBehavior() Detaches a behavior from the component. yii\base\Component
detachBehaviors() Detaches all behaviors from the component. yii\base\Component
ensureBehaviors() Makes sure that the behaviors declared in behaviors() are attached to this component. yii\base\Component
extraFields() Returns the list of fields that can be expanded further and returned by toArray(). yii\base\ArrayableTrait
fields() Returns the list of fields that should be returned by default by toArray() when no specific fields are specified. yii\base\Model
formName() Returns the form name that this model class should use. yii\base\Model
generateAttributeLabel() Generates a user friendly attribute label based on the give attribute name. yii\base\Model
getActiveValidators() Returns the validators applicable to the current \yii\base\scenario. yii\base\Model
getAttributeHint() Returns the text hint for the specified attribute. yii\base\Model
getAttributeLabel() Returns the text label for the specified attribute. yii\base\Model
getAttributes() Returns attribute values. yii\base\Model
getBehavior() Returns the named behavior object. yii\base\Component
getBehaviors() Returns all behaviors attached to this component. yii\base\Component
getErrorSummary() Returns the errors for all attributes as a one-dimensional array. yii\base\Model
getErrors() Returns the errors for all attributes or a single attribute. yii\base\Model
getFirstError() Returns the first error of the specified attribute. yii\base\Model
getFirstErrors() Returns the first error of every attribute in the model. yii\base\Model
getIterator() Returns an iterator for traversing the attributes in the model. yii\base\Model
getScenario() Returns the scenario that this model is used in. yii\base\Model
getValidators() Returns all the validators declared in rules(). yii\base\Model
hasErrors() Returns a value indicating whether there is any validation error. yii\base\Model
hasEventHandlers() Returns a value indicating whether there is any handler attached to the named event. yii\base\Component
hasMethod() Returns a value indicating whether a method is defined. yii\base\BaseObject
hasProperty() Returns a value indicating whether a property is defined. yii\base\BaseObject
init() Initializes the object. yii\base\BaseObject
instance() Returns static class instance, which can be used to obtain meta information. yii\base\StaticInstanceTrait
isAttributeActive() Returns a value indicating whether the attribute is active in the current scenario. yii\base\Model
isAttributeRequired() Returns a value indicating whether the attribute is required. yii\base\Model
isAttributeSafe() Returns a value indicating whether the attribute is safe for massive assignments. yii\base\Model
load() Populates the model with input data. yii\base\Model
loadMultiple() Populates a set of models with the data from end user. yii\base\Model
off() Detaches an existing event handler from this component. yii\base\Component
offsetExists() Returns whether there is an element at the specified offset. yii\base\Model
offsetGet() Returns the element at the specified offset. yii\base\Model
offsetSet() Sets the element at the specified offset. yii\base\Model
offsetUnset() Sets the element value at the specified offset to null. yii\base\Model
on() Attaches an event handler to an event. yii\base\Component
onUnsafeAttribute() This method is invoked when an unsafe attribute is being massively assigned. yii\base\Model
rules() Returns the validation rules for attributes. yii\base\Model
safeAttributes() Returns the attribute names that are safe to be massively assigned in the current scenario. yii\base\Model
scenarios() Returns a list of scenarios and the corresponding active attributes. yii\base\Model
setAttributes() Sets the attribute values in a massive way. yii\base\Model
setScenario() Sets the scenario for the model. yii\base\Model
toArray() Converts the model into an array. yii\base\ArrayableTrait
trigger() Triggers an event. yii\base\Component
validate() Performs the data validation. yii\base\Model
validateMultiple() Validates multiple models. yii\base\Model

Protected Methods

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MethodDescriptionDefined By
resolveFields() Determines which fields can be returned by toArray(). yii\base\ArrayableTrait

Events

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EventTypeDescriptionDefined By
EVENT_AFTER_VALIDATE yii\base\Event An event raised at the end of validate() yii\base\Model
EVENT_BEFORE_VALIDATE yii\base\ModelEvent An event raised at the beginning of validate(). yii\base\Model

Constants

Hide inherited constants

ConstantValueDescriptionDefined By
SCENARIO_DEFAULT 'default' The name of the default scenario. yii\base\Model

Method Details

activeAttributes() public method

Returns the attribute names that are subject to validation in the current scenario.

public string[] activeAttributes ( )
return string[]

Safe attribute names

addError() public method

Adds a new error to the specified attribute.

public void addError ( $attribute, $error '' )
$attribute string

Attribute name

$error string

New error message

addErrors() public method (available since version 2.0.2)

Adds a list of errors.

public void addErrors ( array $items )
$items array

A list of errors. The array keys must be attribute names. The array values should be error messages. If an attribute has multiple errors, these errors must be given in terms of an array. You may use the result of getErrors() as the value for this parameter.

afterValidate() public method

This method is invoked after validation ends.

The default implementation raises an afterValidate event. You may override this method to do postprocessing after validation. Make sure the parent implementation is invoked so that the event can be raised.

public void afterValidate ( )
attributeHints() public method (available since version 2.0.4)

Returns the attribute hints.

Attribute hints are mainly used for display purpose. For example, given an attribute isPublic, we can declare a hint Whether the post should be visible for not logged in users, which provides user-friendly description of the attribute meaning and can be displayed to end users.

Unlike label hint will not be generated, if its explicit declaration is omitted.

Note, in order to inherit hints defined in the parent class, a child class needs to merge the parent hints with child hints using functions such as array_merge().

public array attributeHints ( )
return array

Attribute hints (name => hint)

attributeLabels() public method

Returns the attribute labels.

Attribute labels are mainly used for display purpose. For example, given an attribute firstName, we can declare a label First Name which is more user-friendly and can be displayed to end users.

By default an attribute label is generated using generateAttributeLabel(). This method allows you to explicitly specify attribute labels.

Note, in order to inherit labels defined in the parent class, a child class needs to merge the parent labels with child labels using functions such as array_merge().

See also generateAttributeLabel().

public array attributeLabels ( )
return array

Attribute labels (name => label)

attributes() public method

Returns the list of attribute names.

By default, this method returns all public non-static properties of the class. You may override this method to change the default behavior.

public array attributes ( )
return array

List of attribute names.

beforeValidate() public method

This method is invoked before validation starts.

The default implementation raises a beforeValidate event. You may override this method to do preliminary checks before validation. Make sure the parent implementation is invoked so that the event can be raised.

public boolean beforeValidate ( )
return boolean

Whether the validation should be executed. Defaults to true. If false is returned, the validation will stop and the model is considered invalid.

clearErrors() public method

Removes errors for all attributes or a single attribute.

public void clearErrors ( $attribute null )
$attribute string

Attribute name. Use null to remove errors for all attributes.

createValidators() public method

Creates validator objects based on the validation rules specified in rules().

Unlike getValidators(), each time this method is called, a new list of validators will be returned.

public ArrayObject createValidators ( )
return ArrayObject

Validators

throws yii\base\InvalidConfigException

if any validation rule configuration is invalid

fields() public method

Returns the list of fields that should be returned by default by toArray() when no specific fields are specified.

A field is a named element in the returned array by toArray().

This method should return an array of field names or field definitions. If the former, the field name will be treated as an object property name whose value will be used as the field value. If the latter, the array key should be the field name while the array value should be the corresponding field definition which can be either an object property name or a PHP callable returning the corresponding field value. The signature of the callable should be:

function ($model, $field) {
    // return field value
}

For example, the following code declares four fields:

  • email: the field name is the same as the property name email;
  • firstName and lastName: the field names are firstName and lastName, and their values are obtained from the first_name and last_name properties;
  • fullName: the field name is fullName. Its value is obtained by concatenating first_name and last_name.
return [
    'email',
    'firstName' => 'first_name',
    'lastName' => 'last_name',
    'fullName' => function ($model) {
        return $model->first_name . ' ' . $model->last_name;
    },
];

In this method, you may also want to return different lists of fields based on some context information. For example, depending on \yii\base\scenario or the privilege of the current application user, you may return different sets of visible fields or filter out some fields.

The default implementation of this method returns attributes() indexed by the same attribute names.

See also toArray().

public array fields ( )
return array

The list of field names or field definitions.

formName() public method

Returns the form name that this model class should use.

The form name is mainly used by yii\widgets\ActiveForm to determine how to name the input fields for the attributes in a model. If the form name is "A" and an attribute name is "b", then the corresponding input name would be "A[b]". If the form name is an empty string, then the input name would be "b".

The purpose of the above naming schema is that for forms which contain multiple different models, the attributes of each model are grouped in sub-arrays of the POST-data and it is easier to differentiate between them.

By default, this method returns the model class name (without the namespace part) as the form name. You may override it when the model is used in different forms.

See also load().

public string formName ( )
return string

The form name of this model class.

generateAttributeLabel() public method

Generates a user friendly attribute label based on the give attribute name.

This is done by replacing underscores, dashes and dots with blanks and changing the first letter of each word to upper case. For example, 'department_name' or 'DepartmentName' will generate 'Department Name'.

public string generateAttributeLabel ( $name )
$name string

The column name

return string

The attribute label

getActiveValidators() public method

Returns the validators applicable to the current \yii\base\scenario.

public yii\validators\Validator[] getActiveValidators ( $attribute null )
$attribute string

The name of the attribute whose applicable validators should be returned. If this is null, the validators for ALL attributes in the model will be returned.

return yii\validators\Validator[]

The validators applicable to the current \yii\base\scenario.

getAttributeHint() public method (available since version 2.0.4)

Returns the text hint for the specified attribute.

See also attributeHints().

public string getAttributeHint ( $attribute )
$attribute string

The attribute name

return string

The attribute hint

getAttributeLabel() public method

Returns the text label for the specified attribute.

See also:

public string getAttributeLabel ( $attribute )
$attribute string

The attribute name

return string

The attribute label

getAttributes() public method

Returns attribute values.

public array getAttributes ( $names null, $except = [] )
$names array

List of attributes whose value needs to be returned. Defaults to null, meaning all attributes listed in attributes() will be returned. If it is an array, only the attributes in the array will be returned.

$except array

List of attributes whose value should NOT be returned.

return array

Attribute values (name => value).

getErrorSummary() public method (available since version 2.0.14)

Returns the errors for all attributes as a one-dimensional array.

See also:

public array getErrorSummary ( $showAllErrors )
$showAllErrors boolean

Boolean, if set to true every error message for each attribute will be shown otherwise only the first error message for each attribute will be shown.

return array

Errors for all attributes as a one-dimensional array. Empty array is returned if no error.

getErrors() public method

Returns the errors for all attributes or a single attribute.

See also:

public array getErrors ( $attribute null )
$attribute string

Attribute name. Use null to retrieve errors for all attributes.

return array

Errors for all attributes or the specified attribute. Empty array is returned if no error. Note that when returning errors for all attributes, the result is a two-dimensional array, like the following:

[
    'username' => [
        'Username is required.',
        'Username must contain only word characters.',
    ],
    'email' => [
        'Email address is invalid.',
    ]
]
getFirstError() public method

Returns the first error of the specified attribute.

See also:

public string getFirstError ( $attribute )
$attribute string

Attribute name.

return string

The error message. Null is returned if no error.

getFirstErrors() public method

Returns the first error of every attribute in the model.

See also:

public array getFirstErrors ( )
return array

The first errors. The array keys are the attribute names, and the array values are the corresponding error messages. An empty array will be returned if there is no error.

getIterator() public method

Returns an iterator for traversing the attributes in the model.

This method is required by the interface IteratorAggregate.

public ArrayIterator getIterator ( )
return ArrayIterator

An iterator for traversing the items in the list.

getScenario() public method

Returns the scenario that this model is used in.

Scenario affects how validation is performed and which attributes can be massively assigned.

public string getScenario ( )
return string

The scenario that this model is in. Defaults to SCENARIO_DEFAULT.

getValidators() public method

Returns all the validators declared in rules().

This method differs from getActiveValidators() in that the latter only returns the validators applicable to the current \yii\base\scenario.

Because this method returns an ArrayObject object, you may manipulate it by inserting or removing validators (useful in model behaviors). For example,

$model->validators[] = $newValidator;
public ArrayObject|yii\validators\Validator[] getValidators ( )
return ArrayObject|yii\validators\Validator[]

All the validators declared in the model.

hasErrors() public method

Returns a value indicating whether there is any validation error.

public boolean hasErrors ( $attribute null )
$attribute string|null

Attribute name. Use null to check all attributes.

return boolean

Whether there is any error.

isAttributeActive() public method

Returns a value indicating whether the attribute is active in the current scenario.

See also activeAttributes().

public boolean isAttributeActive ( $attribute )
$attribute string

Attribute name

return boolean

Whether the attribute is active in the current scenario

isAttributeRequired() public method

Returns a value indicating whether the attribute is required.

This is determined by checking if the attribute is associated with a required validation rule in the current \yii\base\scenario.

Note that when the validator has a conditional validation applied using $when this method will return false regardless of the when condition because it may be called be before the model is loaded with data.

public boolean isAttributeRequired ( $attribute )
$attribute string

Attribute name

return boolean

Whether the attribute is required

isAttributeSafe() public method

Returns a value indicating whether the attribute is safe for massive assignments.

See also safeAttributes().

public boolean isAttributeSafe ( $attribute )
$attribute string

Attribute name

return boolean

Whether the attribute is safe for massive assignments

load() public method

Populates the model with input data.

This method provides a convenient shortcut for:

if (isset($_POST['FormName'])) {
    $model->attributes = $_POST['FormName'];
    if ($model->save()) {
        // handle success
    }
}

which, with load() can be written as:

if ($model->load($_POST) && $model->save()) {
    // handle success
}

load() gets the 'FormName' from the model's formName() method (which you may override), unless the $formName parameter is given. If the form name is empty, load() populates the model with the whole of $data, instead of $data['FormName'].

Note, that the data being populated is subject to the safety check by setAttributes().

public boolean load ( $data, $formName null )
$data array

The data array to load, typically $_POST or $_GET.

$formName string

The form name to use to load the data into the model. If not set, formName() is used.

return boolean

Whether load() found the expected form in $data.

loadMultiple() public static method

Populates a set of models with the data from end user.

This method is mainly used to collect tabular data input. The data to be loaded for each model is $data[formName][index], where formName refers to the value of formName(), and index the index of the model in the $models array. If formName() is empty, $data[index] will be used to populate each model. The data being populated to each model is subject to the safety check by setAttributes().

public static boolean loadMultiple ( $models, $data, $formName null )
$models array

The models to be populated. Note that all models should have the same class.

$data array

The data array. This is usually $_POST or $_GET, but can also be any valid array supplied by end user.

$formName string

The form name to be used for loading the data into the models. If not set, it will use the formName() value of the first model in $models. This parameter is available since version 2.0.1.

return boolean

Whether at least one of the models is successfully populated.

offsetExists() public method

Returns whether there is an element at the specified offset.

This method is required by the SPL interface ArrayAccess. It is implicitly called when you use something like isset($model[$offset]).

public boolean offsetExists ( $offset )
$offset mixed

The offset to check on.

return boolean

Whether or not an offset exists.

offsetGet() public method

Returns the element at the specified offset.

This method is required by the SPL interface ArrayAccess. It is implicitly called when you use something like $value = $model[$offset];.

public mixed offsetGet ( $offset )
$offset mixed

The offset to retrieve element.

return mixed

The element at the offset, null if no element is found at the offset

offsetSet() public method

Sets the element at the specified offset.

This method is required by the SPL interface ArrayAccess. It is implicitly called when you use something like $model[$offset] = $item;.

public void offsetSet ( $offset, $item )
$offset integer

The offset to set element

$item mixed

The element value

offsetUnset() public method

Sets the element value at the specified offset to null.

This method is required by the SPL interface ArrayAccess. It is implicitly called when you use something like unset($model[$offset]).

public void offsetUnset ( $offset )
$offset mixed

The offset to unset element

onUnsafeAttribute() public method

This method is invoked when an unsafe attribute is being massively assigned.

The default implementation will log a warning message if YII_DEBUG is on. It does nothing otherwise.

public void onUnsafeAttribute ( $name, $value )
$name string

The unsafe attribute name

$value mixed

The attribute value

rules() public method

Returns the validation rules for attributes.

Validation rules are used by validate() to check if attribute values are valid. Child classes may override this method to declare different validation rules.

Each rule is an array with the following structure:

[
    ['attribute1', 'attribute2'],
    'validator type',
    'on' => ['scenario1', 'scenario2'],
    //...other parameters...
]

where

  • attribute list: required, specifies the attributes array to be validated, for single attribute you can pass a string;
  • validator type: required, specifies the validator to be used. It can be a built-in validator name, a method name of the model class, an anonymous function, or a validator class name.
  • on: optional, specifies the \yii\base\scenario array in which the validation rule can be applied. If this option is not set, the rule will apply to all scenarios.
  • additional name-value pairs can be specified to initialize the corresponding validator properties. Please refer to individual validator class API for possible properties.

A validator can be either an object of a class extending yii\validators\Validator, or a model class method (called inline validator) that has the following signature:

// $params refers to validation parameters given in the rule
function validatorName($attribute, $params)

In the above $attribute refers to the attribute currently being validated while $params contains an array of validator configuration options such as max in case of string validator. The value of the attribute currently being validated can be accessed as $this->$attribute. Note the $ before attribute; this is taking the value of the variable $attribute and using it as the name of the property to access.

Yii also provides a set of built-in validators. Each one has an alias name which can be used when specifying a validation rule.

Below are some examples:

[
    // built-in "required" validator
    [['username', 'password'], 'required'],
    // built-in "string" validator customized with "min" and "max" properties
    ['username', 'string', 'min' => 3, 'max' => 12],
    // built-in "compare" validator that is used in "register" scenario only
    ['password', 'compare', 'compareAttribute' => 'password2', 'on' => 'register'],
    // an inline validator defined via the "authenticate()" method in the model class
    ['password', 'authenticate', 'on' => 'login'],
    // a validator of class "DateRangeValidator"
    ['dateRange', 'DateRangeValidator'],
];

Note, in order to inherit rules defined in the parent class, a child class needs to merge the parent rules with child rules using functions such as array_merge().

See also scenarios().

public array rules ( )
return array

Validation rules

safeAttributes() public method

Returns the attribute names that are safe to be massively assigned in the current scenario.

public string[] safeAttributes ( )
return string[]

Safe attribute names

scenarios() public method

Returns a list of scenarios and the corresponding active attributes.

An active attribute is one that is subject to validation in the current scenario. The returned array should be in the following format:

[
    'scenario1' => ['attribute11', 'attribute12', ...],
    'scenario2' => ['attribute21', 'attribute22', ...],
    ...
]

By default, an active attribute is considered safe and can be massively assigned. If an attribute should NOT be massively assigned (thus considered unsafe), please prefix the attribute with an exclamation character (e.g. '!rank').

The default implementation of this method will return all scenarios found in the rules() declaration. A special scenario named SCENARIO_DEFAULT will contain all attributes found in the rules(). Each scenario will be associated with the attributes that are being validated by the validation rules that apply to the scenario.

public array scenarios ( )
return array

A list of scenarios and the corresponding active attributes.

setAttributes() public method

Sets the attribute values in a massive way.

See also:

public void setAttributes ( $values, $safeOnly true )
$values array

Attribute values (name => value) to be assigned to the model.

$safeOnly boolean

Whether the assignments should only be done to the safe attributes. A safe attribute is one that is associated with a validation rule in the current \yii\base\scenario.

setScenario() public method

Sets the scenario for the model.

Note that this method does not check if the scenario exists or not. The method validate() will perform this check.

public void setScenario ( $value )
$value string

The scenario that this model is in.

validate() public method

Performs the data validation.

This method executes the validation rules applicable to the current \yii\base\scenario. The following criteria are used to determine whether a rule is currently applicable:

  • the rule must be associated with the attributes relevant to the current scenario;
  • the rules must be effective for the current scenario.

This method will call beforeValidate() and afterValidate() before and after the actual validation, respectively. If beforeValidate() returns false, the validation will be cancelled and afterValidate() will not be called.

Errors found during the validation can be retrieved via getErrors(), getFirstErrors() and getFirstError().

public boolean validate ( $attributeNames null, $clearErrors true )
$attributeNames string[]|string

Attribute name or list of attribute names that should be validated. If this parameter is empty, it means any attribute listed in the applicable validation rules should be validated.

$clearErrors boolean

Whether to call clearErrors() before performing validation

return boolean

Whether the validation is successful without any error.

throws yii\base\InvalidParamException

if the current scenario is unknown.

validateMultiple() public static method

Validates multiple models.

This method will validate every model. The models being validated may be of the same or different types.

public static boolean validateMultiple ( $models, $attributeNames null )
$models array

The models to be validated

$attributeNames array

List of attribute names that should be validated. If this parameter is empty, it means any attribute listed in the applicable validation rules should be validated.

return boolean

Whether all models are valid. False will be returned if one or multiple models have validation error.

Event Details

EVENT_AFTER_VALIDATE event of type yii\base\Event

An event raised at the end of validate()

EVENT_BEFORE_VALIDATE event of type yii\base\ModelEvent

An event raised at the beginning of validate(). You may set yii\base\ModelEvent::$isValid to be false to stop the validation.